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What is NMN?
09 Jan 2023

What is NMN?

NMN stands for Nicotinamide Mononucleotide, a molecule that occurs naturally in all life forms. At the molecular level, it is a ribonucleotide, the basic building block of nucleic acid RNA. NMN is a direct precursor of the biologically essential molecule NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and is considered a key component in increasing NAD+ levels in biological cells.

Anti-aging properties of NMN
Prof. David Sinclair, professor of biology and genetics at Harvard University, proposes that the body loses NAD+ with age, "and the resulting decline in sirtuin activity, which is thought to be the result of our body's aging A major cause of disease that doesn’t happen when we’re young.” Prof. David Sinclair believes that increasing NAD+ levels during aging may slow or reverse some of the body’s aging processes. The increase of NAD+ in the human body can be achieved by absorbing NMN through diet.

NMN and improve exercise endurance
Studies have found that oral administration of NMN powder increases the ability of adult runners to consume oxygen in their muscles. What's more, taking NMN also improved the ability of human skeletal muscles to use oxygen to produce energy more efficiently during endurance exercise. In addition, studies have also found that NAD+ is one of the keys to maintaining healthy mitochondrial function and stable energy output. The increase of NAD+ in the human body can be achieved by absorbing NMN through diet.

Is it OK to take NAD+ directly to increase the amount of NAD+ in the body?
According to Prof. David Sinclair, professor of biology and genetics at Harvard University, "feeding or administering NAD+ directly to an organism is not a viable option. NAD+ molecules cannot easily cross cell membranes into cells and therefore cannot have a positive effect on metabolism. , the precursor molecules that make NAD+ must be used to increase the level of NAD+.” This means that NAD+ cannot be used as a direct supplement because it is not easily absorbed. NAD+ precursor NMN is easier to absorb and is a more effective supplement.

The human body uses NMN to make NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
Our bodies naturally produce NAD+ from smaller components or precursors. There are five main precursors in the human body: tryptophan, nicotinamide (Nam), niacin (NA or niacin), nicotinamide riboside (NR), and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). Among them, NMN represents one of the final steps in NAD+ synthesis, and it and other precursors can be derived from the diet. Once in the body, our cells can synthesize NAD+ through several different pathways. In addition, direct infusion of NMN into the body resulted in increased NAD+ in many parts of the body, including the pancreas, adipose tissue, heart, skeletal muscle, kidneys, testes, eyes and blood vessels. In experiments, oral administration of NMN in mice increased NAD+ in the liver within 15 minutes.

What does NAD+ do?
NAD+ is the most abundant molecule in the human body other than water, and without it, the organism would die. NAD+ plays a particularly active role in the metabolic processes of organisms, such as glycolysis, the TCA cycle (AKA Krebs cycle or the citric acid cycle), and the electron transport chain, and these functions take place in the mitochondria of organisms (mitochondria are cellular The powerhouse responsible for generating the chemical energy our bodies use) and is the way organisms (including humans) obtain cellular energy.

what is DNA
DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid (English: deoxyribonucleic acid, abbreviation: DNA), also known as deoxyribonucleic acid, is a biological macromolecule that guides biological development and life functions, and can also form genetic instructions. As organisms age, they develop DNA damage from environmental factors such as radiation, pollution, and imprecise DNA replication. According to current theories of aging, the accumulation of DNA damage is the main cause of aging.

Why we should care about NAD+
Since its discovery in 1906, NAD+ has attracted the attention of scientists for its abundance in the body and its key role in the molecular pathways that keep our bodies functioning. In animal studies, increasing NAD+ levels in the body has shown promising results in research areas such as metabolic and age-related diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and diseases of general decline in the immune system.

Another important point of NAD+ in living organisms is that it is the energy source of Sirtuins (an enzyme, enzyme, family) responsible for repairing damaged DNA in living organisms. Sirtuins, also known as "guardians of genes", play a vital role in maintaining cellular health in organisms, and are involved in cellular stress responses and damage repair, insulin secretion, aging processes, and neurodegeneration in organisms Internal activities of the human body such as disease and diabetes. When the body loses enough NAD+, Sirtuins stop repairing damaged DNA, or repair becomes very slow, like a car that can't run without fuel. Keeping Sirtuins alive requires NAD+.

NAD+ helps control and repair DNA damage
Decreased NAD+ levels in the elderly are due to the accumulation of DNA damage caused by the normal aging process resulting in lower NAD+ concentrations. This depletion is exacerbated by any further DNA damage in the body. Almost all cells contain "molecular mechanisms" to repair this damage. The use of this mechanism consumes large amounts of NAD+ and energy molecules.

NMN and boost immune system
As adults age, their immune systems decline, making people more susceptible to illness and harder to recover from illnesses like seasonal flu or even COVID-19. Recent studies have shown that NAD+ levels play an important role in regulating inflammation and cell survival during immune responses and aging. This study highlights the therapeutic potential of NAD+ for immune dysfunction.

NMN and cardiac function
Raising NAD+ levels in the body protects the heart and improves heart function. High blood pressure can lead to an enlarged heart and blocked arteries, which can lead to stroke. In studies using mice, NAD+ enhancers were found to replenish NAD+ levels in the heart and prevent heart damage caused by insufficient blood flow. Other studies have shown that NAD+ enhancers protect mice from abnormally enlarged hearts.

NMN Side Effects and Safety
NMN is considered safe in animals, and the results are so promising that human clinical trials have begun. The molecule is largely considered safe and nontoxic, even at high concentrations used in mouse and human studies.

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